Approximately 70,000 Austrian Jews perished during the Holocaust and over 100,000 emigrated - mainly to the United States, South America and the United Kingdom. Austria was liberated in April 1945 and from May the country was occupied by the Allies and under the Allied Commission for Austria, divided similarly to Germany into four zones - American, British, French and Soviet. Vienna itself was also divided into four sectors and an international zone.
After the war a few thousand Jews returned to Austria and joined those who survived in camps and in hiding. Additionally about 130,000 DPs passed through Austria between its liberation and the mass emigration of 1948. ORT’s work with Holocaust survivors in Austria started in the end of 1946, about a year after establishment of ORT vocational courses in the DP camps of Germany. In December 1946, the first ORT school was opened in Vienna.